Stainless-Plus Damascus Heat Treat Procedure
Hardness 62 61 59 58 56 55 54 53
Overheating steel into the 1550F 1600F range and beyond and soaking it will grow grain. After the blade has cooled sufficiently, then you must “temper” the blade to slightly lower the hardness so that the steel is not too brittle and prone to chipping, cracking or breaking. Done. The next step is to oil your blade using good quality gun oil. Handle your blade carefully at this stage or you may end up with a cracked or broken blade. It works very well for temperatures up to 1650°F. Alternatively, you can make a poor man’s forge in charcoal BBQ grill using a hair dryer to fan the charcoals hot enough. Pull the blade out after 15 minutes & inspect how the etch looks, if you need a higher contrast, again dip the blade back in the etching solution for additional time till you have reached the desired contrast. Be ready and be safe. Big business doesn’t waste money on steps on heat treating it doesn’t need to do. Same wrap same temperature (1950F) - same soak time same plate quench same cryo as 154CM above. Do not agitate side to side as the soft metal can actually warp from the fluid being cooler on side versus the other. I heat a couple large bars of scrap steel to add mass/heat. You will read about guys using acetone in dry ice. Once you are done forging the knife you can move on to the tempering process in which you increase the knife's flexibility and sharpness at a lower temperature, typically between 390 - 800 degrees Fahrenheit. Temper twice at 350°F for 2 hours. Most high carbon steels are generally not cryo treated as the benefit to carbon steels is usually not as significant as it is with the newer super stainless steels.
Quenching the Blade
Simple, heat it to non-magnetic, give it another minute or so to heat a bit more, quench. I live with my wife of 23 years and my three awesome sons. Overheating steel into the 1550F 1600F range and beyond and soaking it will grow grain. This step should be carried out soon after heat treating, within an hour or so, but only after the blade has cooled to room temperature.
It isnt nearly cold enough to do any good at all. 1084, 1095, AISI 0-1, AISI 0-6 Tool Steel Heat Treat Procedure
Must be 18 to purchase. Here is a link to a guide that you can use as a reference: The Heat-Treating Data eBook. We use liquid nitrogen for cryo but dry ice in acetone will also do. Avoid it please. Preheat furnace to 1900°F. Of course, unless you can calibrate the probe, you still dont really know do you? 1. 500F yields approximately 59-60RC which is where most will want this steel. It's apples and oranges. 1095
Evenheats' Set-Pro control can be programmed to automatically soak, for any amount of time desired, once temperature is reached. After placing the blades in the furnace heat to 1850°F. You should have a 58 to 60 RC. Same wrap Harden at 1900F degrees and only about 15 minutes at temperature then plate quench and cryo as above. They dont have to go straight into cryo, but aim for something less than an hour from plate quenching. Care must be taken when quenching in brine. Q11: How do I know if my oven is accurate for temperature? Hold at temperature for 1 hour per inch (25.4 mm) of thickness, 2 hours minimum, then air cool to ambient temperature. Pull the blades out for cooling and place them back at 200°F again for 2 hours. There are no "short-cuts" for proper heat treating. We use brown paper (no idea why brown just what we use) in pieces about 2 x 2 inches. I also know most any oil will work “good enough” for our purposes here. Once there is little or no attraction between the blade and magnet the blade will have reached the proper temperature and is ready to quench. If you drop it now, it will shatter. In this case keep the blades warm (place near the furnace door) or you may use the kitchen oven for drawing. Set the alarm for 1975 degrees F. This preheats the oven a bit. The specific temperature determines the relative hardness of the blade. In place of that, use low viscosity motor oil or even canola, vegetable or peanut oil.
4. We only ever use material sourced from Europe’s finest metal manufacturers and offer our own knife heat treatment service to guarantee the best quality blades. Have a fire extinguisher nearby. Harden at 1950°F and temper at 350°F. Evenheats' Set-Pro control can be programmed to automatically soak, for any amount of time desired, once temperature is reached. After 2 minutes (or less) they will be hand cool, and ready to remove from the foil for cryogenics. After reaching 1850°F start timing the soak time of 20 to 25 minutes. Heat treating O1 tool steel is simple. Agitate so the fluid moves evenly over both sides of the blade. I have a left a piece of steel overnight untempered and found it cracked the next day from the stress hardening puts into the steel. 7. Heat treating has obvious hazards. That said, use this as a guide to heat treating, but not a verbatim blow-by-blow. Wrap blades in heat treat foil. These steels don't need a long soak time. I have never had one crack from cryo treating a blade after quenching but that just means I have been lucky. This is an oil hardening grade of steel which will require oil quenching. Use Kerosene or even diesel fuel if you feel you need a liquid medium but just putting your blade under a block of dry is all you need to do. If they are wrapped individually you may consider placing them in an optional furnace rack. Generally, most guys heat to temperature in their forge as the last heat of the day, turn off the forge and let the steel cool in the forge overnight. 4. It should be avoided. 5. Then finally I start cleaning the blade and sanding it down which brings it closer to what it will look like finished. Step 1 Place the steel into a heat treat oven or forge and raise the temperature to between 1,550 degrees Fahrenheit and 1,650 degrees Fahrenheit. Step by Step
The steel actually changes crystal structure at this point. You will read about guys using acetone in dry ice. After placing the blades in the 220°F temperature they should remain at this heat for 2 hours. 2 pieces for an average hunter and four for a big bowie. That doesn’t mean you only have 1 second to get from your heat source to your quench. Most of our heat treating ovens max out at either 2200° or 2400° F, although the Artisan and HT series have a maximum of 2000°, which is still hot enough for most common types of steel. The next morning, they will be in the range of RHC63+. This is what hardens the blade. 5. While we appreciate the compliment, there really are no secrets and what works for us may not be your favoured solutions. Visit most any of the knife making forums and search for heat treating for 1095 1084 or 1080. Put your knife in the pile of charcoal and heat it up. You should slowly agitate the blade up and down or side to side along the thin edge. Black walnut custom knife handle – from my hero’s walnut tree, Full Sized Nessmuk with Multi Carry Sheath, Mid Sized Kephart with Tiger Maple Scales. Heat to 1450°F. Wrap blades in tool wrap. Step 2: Forge. Hardening: Heat to 1500F or past non-magnetic which is around 1425F. Some guys do one low temper heat at at 300F to 350F sometimes called a “snap temper” to take some of the stress out of a hardened blade before cryo. You should have approx. You should have approx. Quench in light oil or brine. The extra carbon makes heat treating more complex. Knife Heat Treating Services. In short, bring it to critical temperature, quench it in vegetable oil, then temper it in an toaster oven or regular kitchen oven for one hour at 400˚. Replace in furnace and continue hardening steps. 6. Do this safely and be prepared for a flare up of fire and a large amount of smoke. 60 RC. If the carbides have gotten all bunched up and oversized from forging, the steel won’t hold an edge as it potentially could. In practice, you heat the blade and keep touching a magnet to the blade. Can I plate quench between thick steel plates. Annealing: Anneal by heating to 1500F and cool at a rate no faster than 50F per hour. Thunderforged™ is a trademark of Universal Agencies, Inc.™ all rights reserved. The edge will not stay sharp as long. Q6: Are there other ways to heat treat these steels? You may double wrap fro extra assurance of locking out all oxygen. Here are our recipes. Q7: Aluminum is expensive! I have a left a piece of steel overnight untempered and found it cracked the next day from the stress hardening puts into the steel. Avoid it please. Without looking up the information I would expect to see that there are more high temperature carbides in S30V that will require a higher and longer temperature soak to put carbon into solution. Bar stock from the mill probably shouldn’t have to be Normalized, especially if it has been annealed. Having said that, we are rarely out by more than 1 Rockwell point from where we aimed. Heat to 1475F to 1500F (steel type depending) until the metal is just past non-magnetic. Random with CPM420-V and 440-V Heat Treat Procedure
Place in furnace and heat to 1900°F. You must refer to the directions for heat treating your particular type of steel. Quite obviously, you are also going to need a forge of sorts. It will work. Recommended Working Sequence For 1095 . See how hot the coals get from the blower on the hair dryer. Hardness 65 64 63 61 59 57 55 54
Your rate of cooking should be 50F per hour at most. A2: The really hot blades never see oxygen this way. Once the blade is totally dry you are ready to dip it in to the solution. You should have a wire basket in the quench tank for raising and lowering the blades rather than have them lie still. Normalizing steel allows the crystalline structure to be reset and resets the carbides back to uniformity. Check harness. This lowers the chance of cracking the blade. In this process, the steel is frozen to a temperature below 300 degrees fahrenheit and tempered. It will never cut anything and it will be more than hard enough for use as a handle. Soak it in liquid nitrogen overnight or even a cooler full of dry ice. We suggest a double wrap for this grade. Soak it in liquid nitrogen overnight or even a cooler full of dry ice. 1. Always be prepared for a fire. 2. Evenheats' Set-Pro control can be programmed to automatically soak, for any amount of time desired, once temperature is reached. The bottom line is that a knife is a tool and it needs to be able to function. Soak in solution. Note: Rob really nailed the question of using a pyrometric cone for temperature measurement. The edges of the foil should be double crimped being careful to avoid having even a pin hole in the wrap. For extra stability you may freeze the blades in dry ice for one hour. You will see somewhere, a lot of places in fact, that the steel really needs to be cooled off at a high rate, like 1 to 2 seconds and that is absolutely true. Step 3 Remove the knife blade from the charcoal carefully with a pair of metal tongs. Quenching is performed in either light oil (we recommend olive old with clove quenches well we find), or a standard quenching oil. Generally, steel that comes in bar form from a mill is often annealed and probably doesn’t need to be normalized. At this time you will notice that a black substance will be coming off, this is the carbon that was removed during the etch. You can even use water and something called “interrupted quench” but let’s leave that for another time. Draw temper to desired hardness
It won’t be perfect and veteran knife makers will tell you to use dedicated heat treat quench oil to get better results. The basic process is as follows: heat your forge up to the critical point for your steel (+1450°F depending on your steel). Make sure all the oil is cleaned from the blade or your house will smell like oily smoke and your knife making career may be cut short by the boss of the kitchen.
Blades done our way can be cleaned up with just a buffer. Some guys will take a pipe and put one buried in the charcoal and duct tape the other end to their hair dryer. 125°F, place them in the furnace (at 375°F). Remove blades and place them aside for room temperature cooling. 59 RC. Quenching an overheated blade will increase the change of cracking or warping. Heat Treating Stainless Blade Steels at Ranger Original Handcrafted Knives
Dissolving salt in boiling water until it no longer dissolves makes a brine solution. Once you have reached the desired contrast you pull the blade out and immediately rinse it in luke warm water & rub hand soap on it simultaneously. 1. It’s rare but it happens. Normalizing: Normalize by bringing to 1600F, soak for 4 minutes and allowing it to cool in still air. Use a plastic or glass container to hold this solution DO NOT use a metal container. Generally, most guys heat to temperature in their forge as the last heat of the day, turn off the forge and let the steel cool in the forge overnight. Clean your blade very well in acetone. Many use their kitchen oven for this.
The steel will retain heat and survive a few seconds in the air as you move from heat to quench.